- Institute Of Cardiac Sciences
CABG (CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT SURGERY)
What is CABG?
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a medical procedure used to treat Coronary artery disease in situations deemed fit based on the medical prognosis of the patient.
Coronary Artery Disease:
Blood Vessels that supply oxygen and other essential nutrients to heart muscles are called coronary arteries. When fatty material often referred to as plaque gets accumulated in the coronary artery, the artery becomes plaque infested. The plaque infestation narrows the valve of the artery limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the various parts of the body. This condition in medical terminology is called as coronary artery disease. Symptoms associated with the disease are shortness of breath, heart rhythm disturbances, choking or any other difficulties that interfere with routine activities.
Procedure for performing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery:
One of the best ways to treat plaque-ridden arteries is to bypass the plaque infested artery with another piece of the blood vessel which is a graft woven out of pieces of vein from legs or the thighs. The opening end of the graft comes above the blocked portion of the artery and the other end underneath the blocked area which enables the blood flow to be rerouted from the graft to the heart muscles.
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is open-heart surgery, wherein the chest is cut open and the heartbeat function is stopped for a while until the bypass procedure is performed. The breastbone (sternum) is pierced and spread apart. Once the hearts is open and out tubes are connected into the heart to pump the blood through the body during the surgery by a cardiopulmonary bypass machine (heart-lung machine). The bypass machine is needed to pump blood while the heart is stopped and kept standstill to do the bypass. Many patients and doctors prefer open heart surgery, apart from new techniques such as keyhole surgery or robotic surgeries as it is the time-tested procedure. The procedure is performed under sedation or general or local anaesthesia administration. The patient has to empty his bladder and a fasting of six to seven hours before the procedure is required. The basic levels of the patients such as Random blood sugar, blood pressure and other vitals will be well monitored to avoid any post-surgery complications. The heart this opened will be placed back into its original place once the graft is sewed in the targeted location. And the incisions will be stitched, after which a sterilized bandage wounds, which can be removed after three to four days once the stitches are consumed into the skin.
Types of coronary Artery Bypass usually performed:
Off late there have been improvements in the procedure of performing CABG. AT KIMS, we have specialized in improving CABG with the use of endoscopic radial harvesting and endoscopic vein harvesting which are the universally adopted two types of graft surgery, to ease the pain and stay time of patients in the hospital. An endoscope is pre-fitted with a camera and light is sent into the heart to locate the blood vessels which can be utilized to bypass the blocked region of the artery. The radial artery is harvested from the wrist of the patient which vein is harvested from the thigh area. These two procedures take less time than a conventional open heart surgery and the patient recovers faster, however, the medical history of the patient is thoroughly examined before any procedure. The cost of performing coronary by-pass surgery at KIMS is a very viable option as it is customized to fit into the income packages of the patients. Off the pump, the procedure is also put to use by the doctors in certain cases wherein cardiopulmonary bypass machine and the perfusionist are kept on stand-by should the procedure need to be completed on bypass, but actually not used as the surgery is performed while the heart keeps on beating.
KIMS Special Care Post Surgery:
Post CABG is a very critical phase, where the patient is given utmost care by constant vigil by our staff round the clock. Vital parameters such as ECG, EKG, and Blood pressure are monitored in the surgical intensive care unit along with administration of medicines in a phased manner as required. Ventilator support is provided to assist the patient until they are able to breathe on their own. Our Paramedical staffs ensure you breathe in the right manner by being there and assisting you. Gradually after the condition improves liquid diet is recommended and slowly one can get into the normal mode. The stay in the hospital is about 4 to 7 days usually, after which the patient is discharged.
Precautions to be taken at home after the discharge:
It is quintessential to follow a very high level of hygiene regime by keeping the bed clean and the home clean to avoid the risk of infections. The surgical area must not be exposed to wetness, and specific instructions on how to bathe will be given by the physician. The postures as suggested by the doctor while sitting, sleeping need to followed strictly. The doctor has to be informed if the pain does not heal with pain killers, any fever or chills occur or any breathing difficulties or any kind of discomfort arises.
Risks associated after CABG:
The risks are very minimal, but in few rare instances the following complications may arise:
- Constant bleeding during and after the course of surgery
- Mucous accumulation in the lungs leading to pneumonia
- Cardiac dysrhythmias/arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
- Infection at the site of surgery that may spread.
Pregnant or lactating mothers have to follow doctor’s advice before and after the surgery.
Pros or benefits of CABG:
- Longevity and quality of life of the cardiac patient increase.
- Speedy recovery
- Economically affordable
- The graft gets mould with the adjoining areas very fast, and chances for relapse are very rare.
- Normal activities can be resumed at a faster pace.
- Mortality rates after the surgery are very low.
Why Choose KIMS for CABG?
At KIMS CABG is valued for money. We have tailor-made packages to suit individual economic capabilities. Our state of the art technologies are precision oriented and enhance the vision and mission of our doctors of “Better health and better YOU”. AT KIMS we just don’t care for Life, we value and preserve it.