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BONE CANCER

About bones :

The human skeleton is a combination of 200 bones that support and protect the body at all. Bones provide the requisite structure and shape to the body, act as braces for muscles to produce movement and protect internal organs during movements. Most bones are generally hollow and consist of a hard outer portion, a spongy inner tissue that contains the bone marrow. Despite its solid appearance bone is a very active tissue that is constantly in the process of changing itself and remodelling, containing three main types of cells that control this process.

 

What is bone Cancer ?

Cancer that occurs in any part of the bone cells is termed as bone cancer. Bone cancer is malignant it may start spreading to other regions of the body. Bone cancer can be;

  • Primary bone Cancer: Cancer that has started in the cells of the bone.
  • Secondary bone cancer: It may start in any other organ such as lungs and may have spread to the bones, as it begins to divide or metastasize from its parent location.
Osteosarcoma :

It is the most common type of primary bone cancer that occurs in teenagers and young adults. You can get it at any age. Osteosarcoma can grow anywhere in the skeleton, but the commonest places are around the knee or upper arm.

 
Ewing’s sarcoma :

This bone cancer region often diagnosed in teenagers. It most often starts in the pelvis or leg bones.

Chondrosarcoma : this is most often diagnosed in middle age and usually grows slowly. This start in the pelvis, the thigh, the upper arm, shoulder blades or ribs.

 
Rare types of sarcoma :

Very rare types of bone sarcoma that occur in 1 person out of 1 million populations are chordoma and spindle cell sarcomas. Spindle cell sarcomas include the following types: undifferentiated sarcoma of bone, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma.

 
Symptoms :

The exact symptoms of bone cancer will vary from an individual perspective, depending on the size of cancer and where it is in the body. Common symptoms include :

  • Pain: pain in the affected bone region is the most common symptom of patients with bone cancer. At first, the pain is not constant. It may be worse at night or when the bone is moved.
  • Swelling: swelling in the area of the pain may not be seen until weeks later. It might be possible to feel a lump or mass depending on the location of the tumour or its size.
  • Fractures: Bone cancer can weaken the bone it develops in, leading to fractures
  • Other symptoms: cancers of the bones of the spine can start pressing on nerves, leading to numbness and tingling or even weakness. Cancer is capable of causing weight loss and fatigue.
Causes and risk factors :

Primary bone cancer is a very rare form of bone cancer. It is most common in young people, unusual for cancers.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer and is generally diagnosed in teenagers or young adults. It is very rare before the teenage years. Numbers rise again eventually after the age of 60 or after. This is mainly because people with Paget’s disease of the bone have a marginally increased risk of bone cancer and Paget’s disease occurs mainly in people aged over the age of 60.

Ewing’s sarcoma is another form of bone cancer. It is prevalent in people in the ages of 10 and 20 years. Inherited syndromes: certain rare genetic syndrome disorders passed through families through their genes increase the risk of bone cancer, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary retinoblastoma.

Radiation therapy for cancer: Exposure to large doses of radiation such as those given during radiation therapy for treating other types of cancers may affect the bones.

 
Preparing for your appointment :

At KIMS, we are just a call away, if you have any symptoms such as pain or swelling in your legs or shoulders, or your arms or have pain or discomfort just gives us a call and fix up appointments with the top- most orthopaedic doctors or surgeons in Hyderabad.

 
Tests and diagnosis :

Tests and diagnostics are determined to rule out the possibility of cancer, if present its present location, size and shape.

  • Imaging tests: such as x-ray, MRI may be used to diagnose bone cancer and find out whether cancer has started spreading.
  • Biopsy: the bone tissue is taken from the damaged region and is examined for detecting bone cancers.
  • Laboratory tests such as higher levels ALP, or lactate dehydrogenase levels in the blood may indicate osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma.
  • X-ray
  • Bone Scan, CT Scan or CAT Scan
  • MRI or Magnetic resonance imaging
  • PET Scan
  • Integrated PET-CT Scan which gives the images of both at one shot

Treatments: Treatment depends on factors such as:

1) Age of the patient
2) General health condition of the patient
3) the location, size, and shape of the tumour.

The Tumour is classified into a) Low-grade tumour which can be removed by surgery alone. B)A High Tumour requires treatment such as surgery, as well as chemotherapy or radiation as a combination.

 
Surgery:

Surgery involves removal of the cancerous portion of the tumour and a wide excision may be required in cases where in a healthy portion of the tissue adjacent to cancer s removed. If the tumour is present in the arms or the legs the doctors may consider using limb-sparing techniques.

Children detected with bone cancer may require amputation more often than adults as their bones tend to grow more. To avoid amputation, in certain cases, children can be fitted with expandable joint prostheses that adjust as the skeleton grows as the child grows. These prostheses may require multiple operations to adjust the bone length as the child grows.

 
Chemotherapy :

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs or medicines to destroy the cancer cells, usually by stopping their ability to grow and divide. Chemotherapy is administered by a medical oncologist, who specialises in treating cancer with medication.

 
Radiation therapy :

Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specialises in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is a radiation oncologist. For bone cancer, radiation therapy is most often used in patients who have a tumour that cannot be removed with the help of surgery.

 
Prevention :

The inherent factors of bone cancer are yet to be established and it is advised that;

  • The water you drink should be pure and should not be contaminated
  • Fruits and vegetables must be consumed at regular intervals as they contain anti-oxidant properties
  • Ideal body weight must be maintained as obesity leads to cancer
  • Exercise pumps in more oxygen and keeps us healthy

Why KIMS :

KIMS is the Best hospital for treatment bone cancers. We have the best team of oncologists and Orthopaedic surgeons with wide experience in treating varied types of rare bone cancers with excellent and positive results. KIMS cancer helpline is functional all throughout.KIMS hospital, Hyderabad offers the best bone cancer treatment in Hyderabad using advanced techniques such as Best robotic cancer surgery for Bones. The best surgical orthopedician and bone cancer specialist in Hyderabad is treating patients for common and rare forms of bone cancer with positive results.

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