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DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HEART VALVE DISEASE

Dr. T.N.C. Padmanabhan, Monday, October 28, 2019

Heart valve disorders are most common in India. Our heart valves close and open with every beat we take aiding the blood flow to the heart’s upper and lower chambers. The upper chambers of the heart are termed as atria and lower chambers are called ventricles.

There are four types of heart valves a) Tricuspid valve b) The pulmonary valve c) The mitral valve d) aortic Valve.

The function of the heart valves is to ensure that the blood flows in the forward direction smoothly any leakage backward means that the heart valves are not functioning smoothly. The job of the pulmonary artery is to carry oxygen-rich blood to all the parts of the body. If there is a heart valve disorder the valve will not be able to perform its functions normally.


Types of heart valve disorders:

a) Valvular insufficiency: Valvular insufficiency is termed as regurgitation. In this condition, the valve does not close in tightly, and the blood leaks back into the valve, which puts more pressure on the heart. Less blood is pumped to the organs. Any of the valves may be affected, if the tricuspid valve is affected the condition is known as tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary regurgitation, aortic regurgitation or mitral regurgitation

b) Valvular stenosis: Valvular stenosis occurs when the leaflets of the valves get fused causing stiffness of the valves. As the opening gets narrowed, there is pressure on the heart which can lead to heart failure. Any of the four valves or all four valves may stiffen and this condition is referred to as stenosis, depending on the affected valves the condition is named as tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary regurgitation, aortic regurgitation or mitral regurgitation.

c) Other forms of heart problems include congenital valve disease, bicuspid aortic valve disease, mitral valve prolapsed.

The diagnosis is done on the symptoms such as extreme fatigue, dizziness, and discomfort in the chest, swelling in the ankles feet or abdomen and sudden and rapid weight gain. For certain individual’s symptoms may not be present but the disease may be severe.


The doctor or the cardiologist may prescribe tests such as:

a) 2D echo or 3 D echo

b) Angiogram or cardiac catheterization

c) Radionuclide scans

d) Transesophageal cardiography

e) Magnetic resonance imaging

f) Physical examination where the doctor listens to the heart sounds or murmurs

g) The doctor also checks if there is any fluid retention in the lungs.

Based on the results the doctor suggests further course of treatment.

Treatment options: The treatment options include medications and surgery or procedures such as angioplasty depending on the severity of the condition. Other options include placing an artificial stent to regulate the blood flow. The main goal of the treatment option is to correct the damage, repair the valves and protect the valves from further damage. You must bear in mind that you are at risk for endocarditis, even if you have had a surgery. It is important to notify your doctor if you have had a sore throat or any infection. Common types of medications include:

Medications: Their uses

Diuretics: To reduce the water intake in the body

Antiarrhythmic medications: To regulate the rhythm of the heart

Vasodilators: They reduce the pressure on the heart

ACE Inhibitors: Useful in treating high blood pressure

Beta-blockers: They also help in regulating blood pressure

Calcium channel blockers: Help s regulate heartbeat and regulate the blood

Surgery is done only if required to repair the valve.

KIMS is the known in the name in specialty heart treatment in Hyderabad. KIMS is one of the best heart valve surgery hospitals in Hyderabad. Our cardiologists are the best in Hyderabad and offer quality treatment for valve disorders. KIMS cardiology department is headed by Dr. V Dayasagar Rae who is the top most cardiologists in Hyderabad with vast experience in treating valve disorders. He and his team have treated patients with heart valve disorders and have conducted successful surgeries in most critical cases with positive outcomes.

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