What is Cervical cancer ?
Cervical cancer (or cancer of the Cervix) is a type of cancer that develops in a woman's cervix (the entrance to the womb from the vagina). As the cancer cells divide more rapidly, they may grow into deeper cell layers or spread to other organs, eventually forming a mass of tissue called a tumor.
What should I look for ?
Early symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal bleeding, spotting, or watery discharge from the vagina. Menstrual bleeding may be heavier than usual, and bleeding may occur after sex. Signs of advanced cervical cancer can include foul smelling discharge, pelvic pain, problems urinating and swollen legs. If the cancer has spread to organs or the lymph nodes. The staging becomes advanced.
What is the cause ?
The main cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The different types of HPV can cause venereal warts & cancer of the anus, cervix, vulva, vagina, penis & buccal mucosa (mouth). They can also cause cancer of the head and neck.
What are the risk factors ?
The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is HPV infection, which can occur due to the following factors:
- Multiple sexual partners either
- male & female
- Sexual intercourse at an early age (younger than 18 years)
- Personal history of dysplasia of the cervix, vagina, or vulva
- A family history of cervical cancer
- Cigarette smoking
- Certain sexually transmitted infections, such as Chlamydia
- Lack of personal hygiene
What is the diagnosis ?
Typically, a biopsy is performed to diagnose cervical cancer. For certain abnormal Pap test results that require treatment, the abnormal cervical tissue may be removed with healthy tissue and sent for a histopathological study. Once diagnosed, doctors typically assess the size of the tumor and the extent to which the disease has spread.
How is it treated ?
Cervical cancer is usually treated with one or more combinations of surgery (hysterectomy), radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Treatment is chosen based on the cancer stage.
Is Robotic Surgery an option and why ?
In stage I & II a, surgical radical histopathology to be done by either abdominal, laparoscopic and preferably robotic surgery for better results, less bleeding and overall recovery of patient is faster.